Different Faults of Woven Fabrics
Noor Ahmed Raaz
B.Sc. in Textile Engineering (CU)
Specialized in Apparel Manufacturing
A.M.C.S Textile Ltd (AEPZ)
In general words, we can say that, woven fabrics are the structural combination of warp and weft yarn. Here, warp and weft yarn combination can be changed according to the fabric structure. There are different types of woven fabric such as plain, twill, stain, basket, leno, mock leno etc. Today I would like to discuss an important topic about woven fabric which is different faults of woven fabrics in the fabric manufacturing process.
Different Faults of Woven Fabrics:
There are different types of problem founds during weaving fabric manufacturing process. Not only that, also found few faults after production.
Let see most common faults of woven fabric and their remedies as follows-
- Box mark
- Broken pattern
- Broken pick
- Cut weft
- Defective selvedges
- Floats stitches
- Hang pick
- Missing ends /ends out
- Reed marks
- Shuttle marks
- Uneven cloth
It is a band running across the full width of cloth due to difference in appearance from its adjacent surface. This term covers a number of specific faults as below-
- Pick bar-due to difference in pick spacing.
- Starting mark-due to restarting weaving after unweaving, pick finding, prolonged loom stoppage etc.
- Tension bar/shiner-due to difference in weft tensions.
- Weft bar-due to difference in material count, twist, luster. Color or shade of adjacent groups of weft yarns.
2. Box mark:
Box mark is a width wise fine line showing stained or injured weft due to the rubbing of shuttle when it rebounds. The causes of box marks are-
- Dirty box
- Shuttle riding over the weft
- Dirty shuttle
- Weft flying about too freely
- Dirty picking sticks
3. Broken pattern:
This defect may be due to wrong drawing of threads, inserting of the pick in wrong shed, incorrect lifting of warp threads etc.
4. Broken pick:
A pick missing from a portion of the width of the fabric due to rough shuttle eyes, poor winding, weft yarn breakage, improper pirn insertion in the shuttle etc.
It is a narrow streak along the weft due to pronounced opening between two adjacent yarns. A take up motion which is a sticking may also produce crack in fabric.
6. Cut weft:
This defect is caused by using weak weft a strong warp. It shows as a pin hole.
7. Defective selvedges:
There may be various types of defective selvedges as –
- Curled selvedge-due to incorrect balance of cloth structures between body and selv
- Cut selvedges-due to selvedge sticking to the emery cloth.
- Loppy selvedges- due to selvedge ends have worn.
- Pulled in selvedges-due to isolated tight picks.
- Slack selvedges-due to tension variation between body and selvedges.
- Tight selvedges-due to incorrect balance of structure between the body and the selvedges.
- Uneven selvedges-due to variation in weft tension.
8. Floats stitches:
A place where warp and weft yarns escape the required interlacement. Main causes are-entanglements in warp and weft threads, improper warp stop motion, static electricity generation etc.
This is the fibrous appearance of the cloth due to presence of hairy or abraded yarns.
10. Hang pick:
A pick which is out of line for a short distance producing a triangular shaped hole in the fabric. It is caused by too early shedding or too light weft tension.
11. Missing ends /ends out:
The most common end is characterized by a gap of one or more warp ends in the fabric.
12. Reed marks:
Due to this fault, cloth shows irregular spacing between groups of warp yarns across the fabric width. The defect may be caused by damaged or defective reed or too late shedding.
13. Shuttle marks:
Width way marks due to abrasion of warp yarns by the shuttle.
Stains are major problems on woven fabric. Oil, greases, dust, soil, carbon particles in the air, etc may cause stains. Most of the stains are caused by poor material handling and careless of the workers. Certain stains can be removed by solvents.
15. Uneven cloth:
In consistent diameters of weft can produce shady cloth, also occurs when take-up motion is faulty. Broken ratchet wheel teeth may also produce faulty areas on fabric.