Major Defects of Woven Fabric

By | December 1, 2015

Major Defects of Woven Fabric

Noor Ahmed Raaz
B.Sc. in Textile Engineering (CU)
Specialized in Apparel Manufacturing
A.M.C.S Textile Ltd (AEPZ)



Fabric is the main raw material for garments manufacturing process therefore the fabric manufacturer always try to produce their fabric defects free, but several defects may exist in the products process. There are two types of fabric are mainly used for garments manufacturing process. They are woven fabric and Knit fabric. Today I would like to explain about the defects of woven fabric.

Major Defects of Woven Fabric:

After the manufacturing process of woven fabric there following major and minor defects are occurring which are such as like askewer or bias, bowing, bull mark, fly jerk-in, knots mixed end (yarn), mixed filling, open deed, slub, smash, soiled filling or end, stop mark or drawback etc. Here given few major defects of woven fabric are as following-

Woven Fabric Defect Analysis

Defect Explanation
1. Askewer or Bias Filling yarns are not square with warp yarns.
2. Bowing Usually caused by finishing. Filling yarns lie in an arc across fabric width.
3. Bull Mark Caused by a slub or extra piece of yarn being woven into the fabric. This results in an open place in the fabric once the yarn is removed.
4. Fly Caused by fibers being spun into the yarn of another stock. Results in fabric contamination.
5. Jerk-in Caused by an extra piece of filling yarn being jerked part way into the fabric by the shuttle. Fault will appear at the selvages.
6. Knots Caused by tying spools of yarn together.
7. Mixed End (yarn) Caused by a different fiber blend used on the warp frame. Results in a streak in the fabric.
8. Mixed Filling Caused by bobbin of lightweight yarn or different fiber blend being used in filling. Results in distinct shade change.
9. Open Reed Caused by a bent reed wire. Results in warp ends being held apart, exposing the filling yarn.
10. Slub Caused by an extra piece of yarn that is woven into the fabric or thick places in the yarn.
11. Smash Caused by a number of ruptured warp ends that have been repaired.
12. Soiled Filling or End Caused by dirt or oil on the warp or filling yarns or on package dyed yarn.
13. Stop Mark or Drawback Caused by the loom being stopped resulting in the yarns being stretched under tension, when the machine restarts the slack is woven into the fabric.
14. Thin Place or End Out Caused by the filling yarn breaking and the loom continuing to run.

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