Properties of Textile Fibers
Suprovath Kumar Sarker
Institute for Developing Science & Health
The basic component of every garment product is fiber, which is made of different kind of material. Fiber quality varies according to the properties of material used to syntactic the fiber. In the next few paragraphs I will explain about some properties of fiber constituting material which are used for synthesis different kinds of fibers and these properties of materials have a substantial effect on fiber quality.
Properties of Textile Fibers:
Every material has some properties. The textile fiber has also some properties.
Textile fibers properties are:–
- Physical Properties.
- Thermal Properties.
- Chemical Properties.
1. Physical Properties:
Length: Man-made fiber (MMF) length depends on desire whereas the length of nature fibers length varies largely.
Length can be measured by following three ways:
a. Average length.
b. Effective length
c. Staple length.
Staple length can be of three types:
a. Short length (<2”)
b. Medium length (2-4”)
c. Long length (>4”)
Length affects some fiber properties such as strength, processing, appearance etc.
Strength and Extension: Strength means the capacity of a fiber to support a load which is called Tenacity.
Flexibility: The property to resist repeated bending and folding is known as flexibility.
Cohesiveness: Cohesiveness means the capacity of the fibers to hold together during spinning which depends on fiber crimp and twisting process.
Fineness: The quality of the fibers is described by fineness. It is also expressed by the term denier. Fineness affect yarn count, strength and regularity.
Cross section: It gives idea about strength, fineness and surface appearance that varies from fiber to fiber. It helps to increase luster of fiber. It has effect in twisting and bending.
Crimp: The waviness of a fiber. It increases cohesiveness of fiber and gives increased warmth to fabric. It also maintains fabric softness, thickness, absorbency.
Elasticity: It is the power from recovery from deformation. According to condition and surrounding environment, fiber may be plastic or elastic.
Density: Density indicates the mass per unit volume.
Elongation: Elongation is the capacity to be prolonged or lengthened which is define as a percentage of the initial length of fiber. Fiber elongations differ at different temperature level.
2. Thermal Properties:
Amorphousness: Amorphous region of the fiber is the region where amorphous orientation of polymer is present. In amorphous region the polymers are oriented or aligned at random.
Crystallinity: crystalline region of the fiber means where crystalline orientation of polymers is found. In the crystalline area Hydrogen bonding and Vander Walls forces occur.
3. Chemical Properties:
Water: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic are the two classification of fiber according to the interaction of fiber with water. The fiber which has no joint for water that means less absorbency is called hydrophobic.
Absorbency: Absorbency means the ability of the fiber to retain the water which depends on the ratio of fiber’s amorphous and crystalline region because this ration determines the polarity of the polymers.
Acid: Interaction of different fiber with acid variable. To avoid the harmful effect on fiber different acid should be chosen carefully which will not harm fiber but bring the required change during the manufacturing process.
Alkali: Like acid interaction of fiber varies with the different alkalies. Such as mild alkali don’t have any harmful effect on wool but high concentration of caustic soda has harmful effect on wool.